Invisible
InterfaceA Model for Flow in Digital Tools

December 202016480 words

This thesis is the account of my Industry Research Project, carried out in the scope of the MA Digital Experience Design at Hyper Island, Manchester, United Kingdom, 2020.

It examines flow in digital tools, and aims to provide a new model to help digital designers create interfaces that cause (more) flow.

Check out the 15-minute summary of this thesis over on my portfolio.

Reference List

Academic

  • Banfield, J. (2018). Challenge in artistic flow experiences: an interdisciplinary intervention. Qualitative Research in Psychology, [online] pp.1–22. Available at: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14780887.2018.1475535 [Accessed 18 Jan. 2020].
  • Barrett, L.F. (2020). How Emotions Are Made: The Secret Life of the Brain. University of Waikato. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KliAI9umFyY [Accessed 4 Dec. 2020].
  • Bobadilla, J., Ortega, F., Hernando, A. and Bernal, J. (2012). A collaborative filtering approach to mitigate the new user cold start problem. Knowledge-Based Systems, 26, pp.225–238.
  • Chong, D. (2020). Deep Dive into Netflix’s Recommender System. [online] Towards Data Science. Available at: https://towardsdatascience.com/deep-dive-into-netflixs-recommender-system-341806ae3b48 [Accessed 4 Nov. 2020].
  • Clark, A. and Chalmers, D.J. (1998). The Extended Mind. Analysis, [online] 58(1), pp.7–19. Available at: http://cogprints.org/320/1/extended.html [Accessed 17 Nov. 2020].
  • Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1997). Finding Flow: The Psychology of Engagement with Everyday Life. New York: Basic Books.
  • Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Beyond boredom and anxiety. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Originally published 1975.
  • Csikszentmihalyi, M. and Csikszentmihalyi, I.S. eds., (1988). Optimal experience: psychological studies of flow in consciousness. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Deci, E.L. and Ryan, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Springer Science+Business Media.
  • Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R. and Nacke, L. (2011). From game design elements to gamefulness. In: Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference on Envisioning Future Media Environments. [online] MindTrek ’11. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, pp.9–15. Available at: https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2181040 [Accessed 3 Nov. 2020].
  • Emerson, H. (1998). Flow and Occupation: A Review of the Literature. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 65(1), pp.37–44.
  • Encyclopædia Britannica (2016). Tool. In: Encyclopædia Britannica. [online] Encyclopædia Britannica. Available at: https://www.britannica.com/technology/tool [Accessed 2 Nov. 2020].
  • Freiberger, P.A., Hemmendinger, D., Pottenger, W.M., Swaine, M.R. and Encyclopædia Britannica (2020a). Computer — One interconnected world. [online] Encyclopædia Britannica. Available at: https://www.britannica.com/technology/computer/One-interconnected-world [Accessed 3 Dec. 2020].
  • Freiberger, P.A., Hemmendinger, D., Pottenger, W.M., Swaine, M.R. and Encyclopædia Britannica (2020b). Computer — The hobby market expands. [online] Encyclopædia Britannica. Available at: https://www.britannica.com/technology/computer/The-hobby-market-expands#ref235877 [Accessed 3 Dec. 2020].
  • Hoffman, D.L. and Novak, T.P. (1996). Marketing in Hypermedia Computer-Mediated Environments: Conceptual Foundations. Journal of Marketing, 60(3), p.50.
  • Kapitein, Z.M. (2020). Experience Design Processes. [online] Experience Design: From theory to practice. Available at: https://experience-design.zeno.zone/theory/process [Accessed 19 Nov. 2020]. Unpublished essay.
  • Kyriazos, T.A., Stalikas, A., Prassa, K., Galanakis, M., Flora, K. and Chatzilia, V. (2018). The Flow Short Scale (FSS) Dimensionality and What MIMIC Shows on Heterogeneity and Invariance. Psychology, [online] 09(06), pp.1357–1382. Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/241a/981d57cda3077f9646f11a1763fb2da0f8be.pdf [Accessed 5 Dec. 2020].
  • Lilley, S. (1948). Men, machines and history : the story of tools and machines in relation to social progress. [online] Cobbett Press. Available at: https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.36385/page/n221/mode/2up [Accessed 2 Nov. 2020].
  • MacGyver, (1985). [TV Series] Paramount Network Television.
  • Maravita, A. and Iriki, A. (2004). Tools for the body (schema). Trends in Cognitive Sciences, [online] 8(2), pp.79–86. Available at: http://wexler.free.fr/library/files/maravita%20(2004)%20tools%20for%20the%20body%20(schema).pdf [Accessed 17 Nov. 2020].
  • Maslow, A.H. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), pp.370–396.
  • Maslow, A.H. (1954). Motivation and Personality. 1st ed. New York: Harper & Row.
  • Maslow, A.H. (1966). The Psychology of Science; A Reconnaissance. [online] New York: Harper & Row, p.15. Available at: https://archive.org/details/psychologyofscie00masl/page/n5/mode/2up [Accessed 3 Nov. 2020].
  • McLuhan, M. (1962). The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man. Toronto: University Of Toronto Press.
  • Meehl, P. (1975). Hedonic capacity: Some conjectures. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, [online] 39(106), pp.295–307. Available at: http://meehl.umn.edu/sites/meehl.dl.umn.edu/files/106hedoniccapacity.pdf [Accessed 28 Oct. 2020].
  • Merriam-Webster (n.d.). Tool. In: Merriam-Webster. [online] Available at: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/tool [Accessed 2 Nov. 2020].
  • Nacke, L. and Lindley, C.A. (2008). Flow and immersion in first-person shooters. Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Future Play Research, Play, Share - Future Play ’08.
  • Nair, L., Shrivatsav, N. and Chernova, S. (2020). Tool Macgyvering: A Novel Framework for Combining Tool Substitution and Construction. [online] Available at: https://arxiv.org/pdf/2008.10638v1.pdf [Accessed 2 Nov. 2020].
  • Nakamura, J. and Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2009). Flow Theory and Research. In: S.J. Lopez and C.R. Snyder, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology. [online] Oxford University Press, pp.89–105. Available at: https://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195187243.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780195187243-e-018 [Accessed 27 Oct. 2020].
  • Norman, D. (2008). Affordances and Design. [online] jnd.org. Available at: https://jnd.org/affordances_and_design/ [Accessed 2 Nov. 2020].
  • Norman, D.A. (2013). The Design of Everyday Things. Massachusetts: MIT Press.
  • Pelet, J.-É., Ettis, S. and Cowart, K. (2017). Optimal experience of flow enhanced by telepresence: Evidence from social media use. Information & Management, 54(1), pp.115–128.
  • Prensky, M. (2001). Fun, Play and Games: What Makes Games Engaging. In: Digital Game-Based Learning. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-136344-0.
  • Ricci, F., Rokach, L. and Shapira, B. (2011). Introduction to Recommender Systems Handbook. In: F. Ricci, L. Rokach, B. Shapira and P.B. Kantor, eds., Recommender Systems Handbook. [online] Springer, pp.1–35. Available at: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-0-387-85820-3_1 [Accessed 4 Nov. 2020].
  • Schacter, D.L., Gilbert, D.T. and Wegner, D.M. (2011). Psychology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Worth Publishers, p.15.
  • Seligman, M.E.P. (2002). Positive Psychology, Positive Prevention, and Positive Therapy. In: C.R. Snyder and S.J. Lopez, eds., Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford University Press, pp.3–9.
  • Seligman, M.E.P. and Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive Psychology: An Introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), pp.5–14.
  • Takatalo, J., Häkkinen, J., Kaistinen, J. and Nyman, G. (2009). Presence, Involvement, and Flow in Digital Games. In: R. Bernhaupt, ed., Evaluating User Experience in Games. Springer, pp.23–46.
  • Van Bodegraven, J. (2019). AI Driven Design. In: J. Van Bodegraven, ed., Artificial Intelligence Driven Design. [online] Awwwards. Available at: https://www.awwwards.com/AI-driven-design [Accessed 4 Nov. 2020]. Unpublished essay.
  • Van der Made, J. and Van Hagen, M. (2017). Using customer experience insights to enhance travel quality. [online] Global Railway Review. Available at: https://aetransport.org/past-etc-papers/conference-papers-2017?abstractId=5598&state=b [Accessed 28 Oct. 2020].
  • Van der Woert, D. (2018). Refactoring Collaboration. [online] Refactoring Collaboration. Available at: https://thesis.dpwoert.com [Accessed 28 Oct. 2020].
  • Washburn, S.L. (1959). Speculations on the Interrelations of the History of Tools and Biological Evolution. Human Biology, [online] 31(1), pp.21–31. Available at: https://www.jstor.org/stable/41449226 [Accessed 3 Dec. 2020].
  • Zohaib, M. (2018). Dynamic Difficulty Adjustment (DDA) in Computer Games: A Review. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, 2018, pp.1–12.

Trade Magazines

Trusted Sources

© 2020 Zeno Kapitein – All rights reserved

I hereby declare that this thesis is my own and autonomous work. All sources and citations used have been indicated as such. Content accredited to sources remains the intellectual property of the respective sources. All texts either quoted directly or paraphrased have been indicated by in-text citations. Full bibliographic details are given in the reference list which also contains internet sources containing URL and access date. This work has not been submitted to any other examination authority.